This bibliography provides an alphabetical list of selected sources, which will be included in the public report for this research project. Close of data collection was on 31 July 2020.
Appia Energy Corporation, Corporate Overview of Rare Earth Related Activities and Events, April 2020.
Arafura Resources Limited, “Corporate Presentation, January 2020”, https://www.arultd.com/images/20200116_Corporate_Presentation_for_website.pdf.
Arafura Resources, “Supply and Demand”, https://www.arultd.com/products/supply-and-demand.html#supply-demand-img.
Avalon Advanced Materials, Inc., “Rare Earths Processing Lifecycle”, http://avalonadvancedmaterials.com/rare_metals/.
Bauk, George, “Browns Range Dysprosium”, Northern Minerals, 121 Investment Conference, Cape Town, 02/20, https://wcsecure.weblink.com.au/pdf/NTU/02198808.pdf.
Benham, Kirsty, “Q&A Session 4 – E-Tech Metals – Rare Earth Elements”, Critical Mineral Association, 05/20/20, https://www.criticalmineral.org/post/q-a-session-4-e-tech-metals-rare-earth-elements.
Black, Haydn, “FLSmidth gets Contract for TMA’s Gabanintha”, Mining Magazine, 06/24/20, https://www.miningmagazine.com/plant/news/1389613/flsmidth-gets-contract-for-tmas-gabanintha.
Blanco Sebastian, “Indigo Technologies Brings Traction T1 In-Wheel Motor Out Of Stealth Mode After 10 Years”, Forbes, 04/11/19, https://www.forbes.com/sites/sebastianblanco/2019/04/11/indigo-technologies-brings-its-traction-t1-in-wheel-motor-out-of-stealth-mode-after-10-years/#2b885b802ec9.
Bleiwas, Donald I. and Joseph Gambogi, “Preliminary Estimates of the Quantities of Rare-Earth Elements Contained in Selected Products and in Imports of Semimanufactured Products to the United States, Open-File Report 2013–1072, 2010, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2013/1072/OFR2013-1072.pdf.
Bloomberg, “We All Need to Calm Down About Rare Earths”, Bloomberg Opinion, 05/30/19, https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2019-05-30/we-all-need-to-calm-down-about-rare-earths.
BMW, “BMW Group and Jaguar Land Rover Announce Collaboration for Next-generation Electrification Technology”, Press Release, 06/05/19, https://www.press.bmwgroup.com/global/article/detail/T0296783EN/bmw-group-and-jaguar-land-rover-announce-collaboration-for-next-generation-electrification-technology?language=en.
BMW Group, “Investor Presentation”, June 2020, https://www.bmwgroup.com/content/dam/grpw/websites/bmwgroup_com/ir/downloads/en/2020/Investor_Presentation/BMW_Investor_Presentation_2020.pdf.
Bromby, Robin, “Federal Government Means Business Over Critical Metals, Blocks Chinese Investment in Northern Minerals”, Small Caps, 04/23/20, https://smallcaps.com.au/federal-government-critical-metals-blocks-chinese-investment-northern-minerals/.
Canada Rare Earth Corp., “Corporate Overview”, February 2020, http://www.canadarareearth.com/upload/documents/crec-investor-presentation-february-for-.pdf.
Canada Rare Earth Corp., “Rare Earths – Powering the Future”, November 2017, http://www.canadarareearth.com/upload/documents/crec_investor_presentation_nov2017.pdf.
Chemconserve, “Rare Earth Magnet Material Recovery from
Commerce Resources Corp., “Use of Rare Earth Elements in the New Ford C-MAX”, 07/16/18, https://www.commerceresources.com/en/blog/second-generation-ford-c-max.
Constantinides, Steve, “The Big Picture – Putting the Magnet Market Trends Together”, Magnetics 2018, Presentation, 02/08/18, https://www.magmatllc.com/PDF/Magnetics%202018%20-%20Big%20Picture%20-%20Constantinides%20-%20final.pdf.
Daimler AG, “Overview 360° Environmental Check”, Mercedes-Benz CLA, Untertürkheim Department: Group Environmental Protection, RD/RSE, August 2019, https://www.daimler.com/documents/sustainability/product/daimler-environmental-check-mb-cla.pdf.
Daimler, “The Eco Balance of the EQC 400 4MATIC: The Mercedes-Benz EQC is this sustainable”, Daimler, Press Release, 11/11/19,
Daly, Tom, “China Jan-Feb Rare Earth Magnet Exports Fall 4.2% as Virus Curbs Shipments”, Reuters, 03/25/20, https://www.mining.com/web/china-jan-feb-rare-earth-magnet-exports-fall-4-2-as-virus-curbs-shipments/.
Emery, Michael, “Greenland Minerals Ltd.”, Euroz Securities Ltd., 11/19, http://www.ggg.gl/assets/Uploads/News-Research/2019/68821ab575/20191127_Euroz_Research-Note.pdf.
Energy Fuels Inc., “Energy Fuels to Enter Rare Earth Elements Sector; Conference Call & Webcast Scheduled for April 15, 2020”, Energy Fuels Press Release, 04/13/20, https://www.energyfuels.com/2020-04-13-Energy-Fuels-to-Enter-Rare-Earth-Elements-Sector-Conference-Call-Webcast-Scheduled-for-April-15-2020.
Equipmake, “Equipmake Joins Forces With HiETA To Create World’s Most Power Dense Electric Motor”, Equipmake Press Release, 03/04/20, https://equipmake.co.uk/2020/04/07/equipmake-joins-forces-with-hieta-to-create-worlds-most-power-dense-electric-motor/
Field, Frank R. III, Timothy J. Wallington, Mark Everson and Randolph E. Kirchain, “Strategic Materials in the Automobile: A Comprehensive Assessment of Strategic and Minor Metals Use in Passenger Cars and Light Trucks”, Environmental Science Technology, 11/9/17, https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/acs.est.6b06063.
Focus Graphite Inc., “Focus Graphite Inc. Announces the Signing of a Letter of Intent with Investissement Quebec to Sell the Company’s 50% Interest in the Kwyjibo Rare Earth Elements Project, Quebec”, Focus Graphite Inc. Press Release, 04/23/20, http://www.focusgraphite.com/news-releases/focus-graphite-inc-announces-the-signing-of-a-letter-of-intent-with-investissement-quebec-to-sell-the-companys-50-interest-in-the-kwyjibo-rare-earth-elements-project-quebec.
Ford Motor Co., “Our Future is Motion”, Ford, Sustainability Report 2019/19, http://www.sustainability.ford.com.
Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials, “Recycling of Rare Earth Magnets and Production Waste”, https://www.ifam.fraunhofer.de/en/Profile/Locations/Dresden/HydrogenTechnology/recycling.html.
Gambogi, Joseph, “Rare Earths”, U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries, January 2020,
Geomega Resources, REE Recycling, 2019, https://ressourcesgeomega.ca/ree-recycling/.
Graedel, Thomas E., “Rare Earths and Other Scarce Metals: Technologically Vital but Usually Thrown Away”, Presentation, March 2013, https://www.rsc.org/images/Thomas-Graedel_tcm18-230232.pdf.
Grolms, Martin, “Using Magnets to Recycle Rare Earth Metals”, Advanced Science News, 12/23/19, https://www.advancedsciencenews.com/using-magnets-to-recycle-rare-earth-metals/.
Harler, Curt, “Rare Opportunity to Recycle Rare Earths”, Recycling Today, 01/03/18, https://www.recyclingtoday.com/article/rare-earth-metals-recycling/.
Hastings Technology Metals, “Yangibana Project – Begin the Future”, Presentation, 12/19, https://hastingstechmetals.com/investor-relations/presentations.
Heraeus Group, “Heraeus Precious Metals”, https://www.heraeus.com/media/media/hpm/doc_hpm/Heraeus_Precious_Metals_Brochure.pdf (link subsequently edited/updated/replaced by https://www.heraeus.com/media/media/hpm/doc_hpm/HPM_Brochure_2020.pdf, accessed 08/18/20).
Hexagon Resources, “Disrupting the Rare Earth Supply Chain, Hexagon, Presentation, March 2020, https://hexagonresources.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/20200317-HXG-March-2020-Corp-Presentation-Finalc.pdf.
Hsu, Jeremy, “Don’t Panic about Rare Earth Elements”, Scientific American, 05/31/19, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/dont-panic-about-rare-earth-elements.
Hulse, Donald E., P.E., SME-RM; Deepak Malhotra, PhD, SME-RM; Thomas Matthews, MMSA QP; and Christopher Emanuel, SME-RM, “NI 43-101 Preliminary Economic Assessment – Round Top Project, Sierra Blanca, Texas”, Gustavson Associates, 08/16/19 http://tmrcorp.com/_resources/reports/TMRC-NI43-101-PEA-2019-16-August-2019.pdf.
Kassen, Aaron Gregory, “Exploration of Alnico Permanent Magnet Microstructure and Processing for Near Final Shape Magnets with Solid-State Grain Alignment for Improved Properties”, Dissertation, 2018, https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1593366.
Klein, Greg, “Rare Earths from Coal: Geoscience BC Studies British Columbia’s Potential”, Resource Clips, 07/18/19, http://resourceclips.com/2019/07/18/rare-earths-from-coal-geoscience-bc-studies-british-columbia%E2%80%99s-potential/.
Magna, “Magna to Develop and ‘Auto Qualify’ a More Powerful and Affordable Electric Motor”, Magna Press Release, 10/30/19, https://www.magna.com/company/newsroom/releases/release/2019/10/30/news-release—magna-to-develop-and-auto-qualify-a-more-powerful-and-affordable-electric-motor.
Marx, Josefine, Andrea Schreiber, Petra Zapp and Frank Walachowicz, “Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of NdFeB Permanent Magnet Production from Different Rare Earth Deposits”, American Chemical Society, ACS Sustainable Chemical Engineering, 03/22/18, https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/acssuschemeng.7b04165.
Medallion Resources, “Medallion Completes Process Engineering Work for Rare-Earth Element Extraction”, Medallion Resource Press Release, 02/25/20, https://medallionresources.com/2020/02/medallion-completes-process-engineering-work-for-rare-earth-element-extraction/.
Mitsubishi Electric, “Who Is Involved in the Rare Earth Recycling Business?”, Undated, https://www.mitsubishielectric.com/en/sustainability/environment/ecotopics/rareearth/who/index.html.
MP Materials, “MP Materials, North America’s Only Rare Earths Producer, Awarded Contract from DoD to Accelerate U.S. Production of Critical Materials to Support National Defense”, MP Materials Press Release, 04/22/20, https://d1qmdf3vop2l07.cloudfront.net/adroit-marten.cloudvent.net/compressed/_min_/31be44cfbec9a97d15997bb1dcff5573.pdf.
Nainan, Nikhil Kurian and Melanie Burton, “Australia’s Lynas Stockpiles Rare Earths for ‘Strategic’ Customers”, Reuters, 06/20/19,
Nidec Motor Corp., “Nidec Announces In-Wheel Motor Prototype for Electric Vehicles”, Nidec Motor Corp. Press Release, 05/03/19, https://www.nidec.com/en/product/news/2019/news0305-01/.
Niocorp, “The Elk Creek Superalloy Materials Project”, Presentation, 2020, http://niocorp.com/wp-content/uploads/NIoCorp_Corporate_Presentation.pdf.
Ormerod, Dr. John, “Types of Rare Earth Magnets: Part 3 — MQ3 Fully Dense NdFeB Magnets”,
Outotec, “Outotec FPS Technology – Treatment of Fine Zinc Concentrates and Sulphur Residue in Zinc Smelters”, Outotec Newsletter, 02/19, https://www.outotec.com/products-and-services/newsletters/aor-newsletter/issue-2-2019/outotec-FPS-technology–treatment-of-fine-zinc-concentrates-and-sulfur-residue-in-zinc-smelters/.
Pavel, Claudiu C., Christian Thiel, Stefanie Degreif, Darina Blagoeva, Matthias Buchert, Doris Schüler, Evangelos Tzimas, “Role of Substitution in Mitigating the Supply Pressure of Rare Earths in Electric Road Transport Applications”, Sustainable Materials and Technologies, Volume 12, July 2017, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214993716300641.
Peak Resources, Presentation, 01/20/20, https://www.peakresources.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/200121-Updated-PP-Handout-Eng.pdf.
Pensana, Presentation, January 2020,
Popescu, Mircea, André Nasr and Andrea Credo, “Webinar #1: Rare Earth-Free Motor Designs for E-Mobility”, 05/13/20, https://www.slideshare.net/sustenergy/rare-earth-free-motor-designs-refreedrive-project.
Precision Periodic, “Precision Periodic Announces the Successful Extraction of 80% Total Rare Earths in a Five Minute, Single Pass from Phosphate Mine Waste”, Press Release, 07/29/19, https://precisionperiodic.com/news.
Rainbow Rare Earths, “Developing a Long-term Strategic Source of Rare Earths”, Presentation, January 2020, http://rainbowrareearths.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/Rainbow-indaba-2020-FINAL-for-website-v1.pdf.
Rare Element Resources, “Bear Lodge Critical Rare Earths Project”, Corporate Presentation, March 2016,
RCS Global, “Blockchain for Traceability in Minerals and Metals Supply Chains: Opportunities and Challenges”, 12/20/17, https://www.rcsglobal.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/ICMM-Blockchain-for-Traceability-in-Minerals-and-Metal-Supply-Chains.pdf.
Rees, Tom, Vinjeru Mkandawire and Olivia Rudgard, “Rivals Dig Deeper in Race for Rare Earth Minerals”, The Daily Telegraph, 10/29/19, https://d1qmdf3vop2l07.cloudfront.net/adroit-marten.cloudvent.net/compressed/_min_/f4bd857fb6d67b8cf2bda6eaf381e71d.pdf.
Reid, Dr. Ian, “Non-Energy Uses of Coal”, IEA Clean Coal Centre, November 2018,
Ross, Philip E., “IEEE Spectrum: This Inside-Out Motor for EVs Is Power Dense and (Finally) Practical”, 10/08/19,
Scheyder, Ernest, “Exclusive: Pentagon to Stockpile Rare Earth Magnets for Missiles, Fighter Jets”, Reuters, 12/20/19, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-rareearths-magnets-exclusive/exclusive-pentagon-to-stockpile-rare-earth-magnets-for-missiles-fighter-jets-idUSKBN1YO0G7.
Search Minerals, “Corporate Presentation”, November 2019, http://www.searchminerals.ca/assets/2019-11-19-CP-SMY.pdf.
Seren Technologies, “Seren Opens Permanent Magnet Recycling Demonstration Plant”, Press Release, 12/03/18, https://www.seren-ag.com/rem-magnet-recycling/.
Shida, Tomio, “History Offers Lessons in Escaping China’s Rare-earth Dominance”, Nikkei Asian Review, 06/25/19,
Software Motor Company, “Software Motor Company Raises New $25 Million Round”, Press Release, 01/21/19, https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/software-motor-company-raises-new-25-million-round-300990354.html?tc=eml_cleartime.
Statista.com, “Distribution of Rare Earths Production Worldwide as of 2019”
Swift, Ryan and Chad Bray, “Mine, Replace or Recycle: Can the US, Europe and Japan End Reliance on China for Rare Earths?”, South China Morning Post, 06/29/19, https://www.scmp.com/business/article/3016447/mine-replace-or-recycle-can-us-europe-and-japan-end-reliance-china-rare.
Swindon Powertrain, “Order Book Opens for Production Version of Compact, Ready to Install ‘Crate’ EV Powertrain “, 2020, https://swindonpowertrain.com/documents/200527SwindonCrateEVfinalapp.pdf.
Tanbreez, “Mining for Greener Technologies”, http://tanbreez.com/en/project-overview/key-project-features.
Tangemann, Cristian, “Developing Electric Motors Less Dependable on Rare Earth Magnets”, Automotive IQ, 01/22/20,
Toyota Motor Corp., “Toyota Develops New Magnet for Electric Motors Aiming to Reduce Use of Critical Rare-earth Element by Up to 50%”, Press Release, 02/20/18, https://newsroom.toyota.eu/toyota-develops-new-magnet-for-electric-motors-aiming-to-reduce-use-of-critical-rare-earth-element-by-up-to-50/.
University of Birmingham, “New Project Launches Focusing on the Sustainable Reprocessing of Rare-earth Magnets”, 06/13/19, https://www.birmingham.ac.uk/schools/metallurgy-materials/news/2018/New-project-launches-focusing-on-the-sustainable-reprocessing-of-rare-earth-magnets.aspx.
U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), “Critical Materials Rare Earths Supply Chain: A Situational White Paper”, 04/20, https://www.energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2020/04/f73/Critical%20Materials%20Supply%20Chain%20White%20Paper%20April%202020.pdf.
Van Gosen, Bradley S., Philip L. Verplanck, and Poul Emsbo, “Rare Earth Element Mineral Deposits in the United States”, Circular 1454, Version 1.1, April 2019, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, https://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1454/circ1454.pdf.
Worstall, Tim, “China’s Power Over The Rare Earth Market Is A Lot Less Than You Might Think”, Continental Telegraphy, 05/28/19, https://www.continentaltelegraph.com/uncategorized/chinas-power-over-the-rare-earth-market-is-a-lot-less-than-you-might-think.
Zarate, Nyah, “Next Generation of Electric Vehicle Motors – The Silent Treatment”, Continuous Solutions, Blog, 02/01/20, https://www.continuousolutions.com/blog-cs/next-generation-of-electric-vehicle-motors.
Zesong, Hu, “Investment in Greenlandic Mining”, Presentation, 12/19, https://www.ggg.gl/assets/Uploads/Presentations/b76a5718ad/Dec-2019-SKN-Investment-in-Greenlandic-Mining.pdf.